“Periodontal” literally means “around the tooth.” Periodontal gum disease (also known as periodontitis and gum disease) is a common inflammatory condition affecting the soft tissues that support and surround the tooth and jawbone in its advanced stages. Periodontal disease is caused by poor oral hygiene, which allows plaque buildup on your teeth. Untreated plaque buildup can result in severe damage to the jaw and lead to loss of bone.
The early stage of gum disease includes gingivitis, where the infection is found only in your gums, and they become inflamed, red, and may even bleed. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 47.2% of adults aged 30 and older are affected by periodontal gum disease, and the prevalence of this disease increases with age. 70.1% of adults 65 and older are affected.
Periodontal disease is the leading cause of tooth loss among adults in the developed world and should always be promptly treated. Early detection of periodontal gum disease can increase the likelihood of successful treatment. Reversing gum disease is only possible during its early stages.
Symptoms of Periodontal Disease
Gum disease can be silent, meaning symptoms do not always appear until the disease has progressed. The symptoms of gum disease vary depending on the stage of the disease; however, patients with periodontitis will begin to notice the following common symptoms:
- Mouth soreness or pain in the mouth
- Gums that bleed when you brush or floss your teeth
- Red, swollen, or tender gums
- Changes in the position of your teeth or loose teeth
- Plaque buildup on teeth
- Receding gums
- Tooth loss
- Bad breath
- Foul taste in the mouth
- Changes in the bite
- Painful gum inflammation
As mentioned, symptoms in the early stages of periodontitis are often not very noticeable. Your Dentist will likely be the first to point them out, which is why you must have regular dental check-ups.
Reversing Periodontal Disease
Periodontitis can only be slowed down. Gingivitis is reversible. However, when periodontal disease is detected in its early stages, the likelihood of a successful treatment increases.
Preventative Care: Obviously, the best way to reverse periodontitis is to prevent it in the first place. You may protect your teeth from tooth decay, avoid the possibility of plaque buildup, and maintain the health of your gums by focusing on preventative health and oral hygiene through an efficient routine at-home oral cleaning.
Here is a simple oral hygiene routine that you should already be familiar with.
- Brush your teeth twice a day. Many dentists recommend using an electric toothbrush instead of a manual toothbrush for good daily dental hygiene. Toothbrushes should be replaced every three months to remove food particles effectively.
- Floss after eating. Bacteria feed on the bits of food stuck in your mouth. So, flossing your teeth after eating is essential to remove the bacteria from the food source.
- Use good mouthwash. Dentists suggest you use an antibacterial mouthwash or a prescription mouthwash regularly. Not only does the taste of mouthwash leave your mouth feeling clean and fresh, but it will also remove the leftover food particles in your mouth.
- Visit your Dentist for regular check-ups. Your Dentist will not only check for cavities and other problems, but they will also remove tartar buildup.
- Laser dentistry can be used in deep cleaning to strengthen the seal between the teeth and gums and aid in bone regeneration.
Other Types of Gum Disease
Gum disease is divided into two categories. Periodontitis and Gingivitis. Gingivitis is the most common and mild form of gum disease, and it can be cured or ‘reversed.’ Periodontitis can be classified into four stages:
- Periodontitis Stage 1: Initial
- Periodontitis Stage 2: Moderate
- Periodontitis Stage 3: Severe with the potential tooth loss
- Periodontitis Stage 4: Severe with the possible loss of all teeth
Gingivitis is the mildest type of periodontal disease and usually represents the first stage of gum disease. The most common symptoms include red, tender, or/and swollen gums that may tend to bleed easily when brushing or flossing teeth.
Gingivitis is not associated with loss of gum attachment from teeth or with bone loss. This periodontal disease can be easily reversed with professional dental cleaning and proper daily oral health.
This is considered the more severe gum disease because it can cause irreversible damage to gum tissues. Periodontal disease is characterized by the loss of attachment of gingival tissues from teeth and bone tissue loss at the infected area. Deep pockets form between the teeth and the gums. Receding gums that bleed easily and bad breath are common symptoms of periodontitis.
In advanced stages, periodontitis can destroy the soft and hard tissues that support teeth and can finally result in tooth loss.
The condition may first appear in adolescence due to poor oral hygiene. Still, in most cases, it is after the mid-30s when the clinical symptoms become significant in adult teeth. If symptoms are ignored, the loss of bone and gum-infected tissue will lead to the loss of teeth.
This is a severe periodontitis disease that can cause tooth loss in a short period. Common symptoms are the rapid increase in the depth of periodontal pockets and the rapid loss of bone structure.
Sometimes the condition is localized, affecting one or no more than three teeth in patients with good oral health. Generalized aggressive periodontitis affecting the whole mouth requires immediate treatment to prevent extensive tooth loss. Genetic factors and immune deficiencies are considered causes of aggressive periodontitis in addition to the microbial etiology of gum disease.
How A Dentist Can Help
Dentists are masters in maintaining healthy teeth and gums. A check-up can frequently be the first line of defense against gum disease as they examine your mouth, teeth, and gums to discover any issues.
Even if you see some symptoms, such as red, swollen, bleeding, or receding gums, you might not seek treatment as quickly as you should because gum disease frequently doesn’t cause pain or discomfort like dental pain or sensitivity. However, if gingivitis, the early stage of gum disease, is not treated, it can progress to periodontitis, a far more dangerous condition that can result in tooth loss.
A dentist will closely work with you to ensure your oral health remains at its best. This is achieved through regular dental exams, routine dental cleanings, deep cleaning procedures, professional teeth cleaning, and an efficient oral hygiene routine.
Your Dentist will advise you on how to treat and prevent gum disease at home and how often you need to visit for regular check-ups.